Waste management

Waste management or waste disposals are the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal this includes the collection transport treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process waste can be solid liquid or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal and management waste management deals with all types of waste including industrial biological and household in some cases waste can pose a threat to human health.

Waste is produced by human activity for example the extraction and processing of raw materials waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health the environment or aesthetics waste management practices are not uniform among countries developed and developing nations regions urban and rural areas and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches a large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste MSW which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household industrial and commercial activity.

Topic principles of waste management topic waste hierarchy the waste hierarchy refers to the three rupees reduce reuse and recycle which classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization the waste hierarchy is the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies the aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of end waste see resource recovery the waste hierarchy is represented as a pyramid because the basic premise is that policies should promote measures to prevent the generation of waste the next step or preferred action as to seek alternative uses for the waste that has been generated ie by reuse the next is recycling which includes composting following this step as material recovery and waste to energy the final action is disposal in landfills or through incineration without energy recovery this last step is the final resort for waste which has not been prevented diverted or recovered the waste hierarchy represents the progression of a product or material through the sequential stages of the Pyramid of waste management the hierarchy represents the latter parts of the lifecycle for each product.

Topic lifecycle of a product the life cycle begins with design then proceeds through manufacturer distribution and primary use and then follows through the waste hierarchy stages of reduce reuse and recycle each stage in the lifecycle offers opportunities for policy intervention to rethink the need for the product to redesign to minimize waste potential to extend its use product lifecycle analysis is a way to optimize the use of the world’s limited resources by avoiding the unnecessary generation of waste topic resource efficiency resource efficiency reflects the understanding that global economic growth and development cannot be sustained at current production and consumption patterns globally humanity extracts more resources to produce goods than the planet can replenish resource efficiency is the reduction of the environmental impact from the production and consumption of these goods from final raw material extraction to last use in disposal this process of resource efficiency can address sustainability topic polluter pays principle the polluter pays principle mandates that the polluting party pays for the impact on the environment with respect to waste management this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material topic history throughout most of history the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources.

Common waste produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste and these were released back into the ground locally with minimum environmental impact 

tools made out of wood or metal were generally reused or passed down through the generations however some civilizations do seem to have been more profligate in their waste output than others in particular the Maya of Central America had a fixed monthly ritual in which the people of the village would gather together and burn their rubbish in large dumps.

Topic modern era following the onset of industrialization and the sustained urban growth of large population centers in England the build-up of waste in the cities caused a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life the streets became choked with filth due to the lack of waste clearance regulations calls for the establishment of a municipal authority with waste removal powers occurred as early as 1751 when Corbin Morris in London proposed that as the preservation of the health of the people is of great importance it is proposed that the cleaning of this city should be put under one uniform public management and all the filth be conveyed by the Thames to proper distance in the country.

However it was not until the mid 19th century spurred by increasingly devastating cholera outbreaks and the emergence of a public health debate that the first legislation on the issue emerged highly influential in this new focus was the report the sanitary condition of the laboring population in 1842 of the social reformer Edwin Chadwick in which he argued for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and well-being of the city’s population in the UK, the nuisance removal and disease prevention Act of 1846 began what was to be a steadily evolving process of the provision of regulated waste managed in London the Metropolitan Board of Works was the first citywide Authority that centralized sanitation regulation for the rapidly expanding city and the Public Health Act 1875 made it compulsory for every household to deposit their weekly waste in moveable receptacles for disposal the first concept for a dustbin the dramatic increase in waste for disposal led to the creation of the first incineration plants or as they were then called destructors in 1874.

The first incinerator was built in Nottingham by manlove Ali itand co limited to the design of alfred fryer however these were met with opposition on account of the large amounts of ash they produced in which wafted over the neighbouring areas similar municipal systems of waste disposal sprung up at the turn of the 20th century in other large cities of Europe and North America in 1895 New York City became the first US city with public sector garbage management early garbage removal trucks were simply open bodied dump trucks pulled by a team of horses they became motorized in the early part of the 20th century and the first closed body trucks to eliminate odors with a dumping lever mechanism were introduced in the 1920s in Britain these were soon equipped with hopper mechanisms where the scooper was loaded at floor level and then hoisted mechanically to deposit the waste in the truck the Garwood load Packer was the first truck in 1938 to incorporate a hydraulic compactor topic waste handling and transport waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities or by private companies for industrial and commercial waste.

Some areas especially those in less developed countries do not have formal waste collection systems topic waste handling practices curbside collection is the most common method of disposal in most European countries Canada New Zealand and many other parts of the developed world in which waste is collected at regular intervals by specialized trucks this is often associated with curbside waste segregation in rural areas waste may need to be taken to a transfer station waste collected is then transported to an appropriate disposal facility in some areas vacuum collection is used in which waste is transported from the home or commercial premises by vacuum along small bore tubes systems are in use in Europe and North America.

In some jurisdictions unsegregated waste is collected at the curbside or from waste transfer stations and then sorted into recyclables and unusable waste such systems are capable of sorting large volumes of solid waste salvaging recyclables and turning the rest into biogas and soil conditioner in San Francisco the local government established its mandatory recycling and composting ordinance in support of its goal of zero waste by 2020 requiring everyone in the city to keep recyclables and compostables out of the landfill the three streams are collected with the curbside fantastic three-bin system blue for recyclables green for compostable and black for landfill-bound materials provided to residents and businesses and serviced by San Francisco’s sole refuse hauler Recology the city’s pay as you throw system charges customers by the volume of landfill-bound materials which provides a financial incentive to separate recyclables and compostables from other discards the city’s Department of the Environment zero waste program has led the city to achieve 80% diversion the highest diversion rate in North America.

Other businesses such as waste industries use a variety of colors to distinguish between trash and recycling cans topic financial models in most developed countries domestic waste disposal is funded from a national or local tax which may be related to income or property values commercial and industrial waste disposal is typically charged for as a commercial service often as an integrated charge which includes disposal costs this practice may encourage disposal contractors to opt for the cheapest disposal options such as landfill rather than the environmentally best solutions such as reuse and recycling in some areas such as Taipei the city government charges its households in industries for the volume of rubbish they produce waste is collected by the City Council only if it is put in government-issued rubbish bags this policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate.

Morocco has also seen benefits from implementing a $300,000,000 sanitary landfill system while it might appear to be a costly investment the country’s government predicts that it has saved them another four hundred forty million dollars in damages or consequences of failing to dispose of waste properly topic disposal methods topic landfill topic incineration incineration as a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products this method is useful for disposal of both municipal solid waste and solid residue from wastewater treatment this process reduces the volumes of solid waste by 80 to 95 percent incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as thermal treatment incinerators convert waste materials into heat gas steam and ash incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry it is used to dispose of solid liquid and gaseous waste it is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials such as biological medical waste incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce as the facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills waste to energy wte or energy from waste EF W are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat steam or electricity combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants and gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks particular concern has focused on some very persistent organic compounds such as dioxins ferns and PAHs which may be created and which may have serious environmental consequences.

Topic recycling recycling as a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers the materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles a procedure called curbside collection in some communities the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into different bins eg for paper plastics metals prior to its collection in other communities all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection and the sorting is handled later at a central facility the latter method is known as single stream recycling the most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans coppers such as wire steel from food and aerosol cans old steel furnishings or equipment rubber tires polyethylene and PET bottles glass bottles and jars paper board cartons newspapers magazines and light paper and corrugated fiberboard boxes PVC LDPE pp and PSC resin identification code are also recyclable these items are usually composed of a single type of material making them relatively easy to recycle into new products the recycling of complex products such as computers and electronic equipment is more difficult due to the additional dismantling and separation required the type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country each city and country has different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials.

However certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed in July 2017 the Chinese government announced an import ban of 24 categories of recyclables and solid waste including plastic textiles and mixed paper placing tremendous impact on developed countries globally which exported directly or indirectly to China topic reuse topic biological reprocessing recoverable materials that are organic in nature such as plant material food scraps and paper products can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter the resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes in addition waste gas from the process such as methane can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat CHP.

Cogeneration maximizing efficiencies the intention of biological processing and waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter see resource recovery topic energy recovery energy recovery from waste as the conversion of non recyclable waste materials into usable heat electricity or fuel through a variety of processes including combustion gasification pyrolysis anaerobic digestion and landfill gas recovery this process is often called waste to energy recovery from waste is part of the non hazardous waste management hierarchy using energy recovery to convert non recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills globally waste to energy accounts for 16% of waste management the energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel, see above to fuel four boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability the process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid liquid and gas products the liquid and gas can be burned to produce energy or refined into other chemical products chemical refinery the solid residue char can be further refined into products such as activated carbon gasification and advanced plasma.

Arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas syngas composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen the gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam an alternative to pyrolysis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition hydrothermal monophasic oxidation topic pyrolysis is often used to convert many types of domestic and industrial residues into a recovered fuel different types of waste input such as plant waste food waste tires placed in the pyrolysis process potentially yield an alternative to fossil fuels pyrolysis is a process of thermochemical decomposition of organic materials by heat in the absence of stoichiometric quantities of oxygen the decomposition produces various hydrocarbon gases during pyrolysis the molecules of object vibrate at high frequencies to an extent that molecules start breaking down the rate of pyrolysis increases with temperature in industrial applications temperatures are above 430 degrees Celsius 800 degrees Fahrenheit.

Slow pyrolysis produces gases and solid charcoal pyrolysis hold promise for conversion of waste biomass into useful liquid fuel pyrolysis of waste wood and plastics can potentially produce fuel the solids left from pyrolysis contain metals glass sand and pyrolysis coke which does not convert to gas compared to the process of incineration certain types of pyrolysis processes release less harmful byproducts that contain alkali metals sulfur and chlorine however pyrolysis of some wastes yields gases which impact the environment such as HCL and so2 topic resource recovery resource recovery is the systematic diversion of waste which was intended for disposal for a specific next years it is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources or convert to energy these activities are performed at a resource recovery facility resource recovery is not only environmentally important but it is also cost effective it decreases the amount of waste for disposal saves space in landfills and conserves natural resources resource recovery as opposed to waste management uses LCA lifecycle analysis attempts to offer alternatives to waste management for mixed MSW municipal solid waste.

A number of broad studies have indicated that administration sourced separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost fertilizer production of the organic material via anaerobic digestion to be the favored path as an example of how resource recycling can be beneficial many items thrown away contain metals which can be recycled to create a profit such as the components in circuit boards wood chippings and pallets and other packaging materials can be recycled to useful products for horticultural the recycled chips can cover paths walkways or arena surfaces topic sustainability the management of waste is a key component in a business ability to maintain ISO 1 400 won accreditation the standard encourages companies to improve their environmental efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices one way to do this is by adopting resource recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass food scraps paper and cardboard plastic bottles and metal recycled materials can often be sold to the construction industry many inorganic waste streams can be used to produce materials for construction concrete and bricks can be recycled as artificial gravel this topic was on the agenda of the International W ASCO end conference in Spain in June 2015 and on the International Conference on green urbanism held in Italy 12 to 14 October 2016.

Topic liquid waste management topic sewage sludge you sewage sludge is produced by wastewater treatment processes due to rapid urbanization there has been an increase in municipal wastewater that results kilograms of sewage per population equivalent per year kilogram p/e per year common disposal practices of sewage sludge are incineration composting and landfill topic avoidance and reduction methods an important method of waste management as the prevention of waste material being created also known as waste reduction methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products repairing broken items instead of buying new ones designing products to be refillable or reusable such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products such as disposable cutlery removing any food liquid remains from cans and packaging and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose for example light weighting of beverage cans topic international waist movement while waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations trans boundary movement of waste is often subject to international treaties a major concern to many countries in the world has been hazardous waste.

The Basel convention ratified by 172 countries deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries the provisions of the Basel convention have been integrated into the EU waste shipment regulation radioactive waste although considered hazardous does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Basel convention topic benefits waste is not something that should be discarded or disposed of with no regard for future use it can be a valuable resource if addressed correctly through policy and practice with rational and consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits those benefits include economic improving economic efficiency through the means of resource use treatment and disposal in creating markets for recycles can lead to efficient practices in the production and consumption of products and materials resulting in valuable materials being recovered for reuse in the potential for new jobs and new business opportunities.

Social by reducing adverse impacts on health by proper waste management practices the resulting consequences are more appealing civic communities better social advantages can lead to new sources of employment and potentially lifting communities out of poverty especially in some of the developing poorer countries and cities environmental reducing or eliminating adverse impacts on the environment through reducing reusing and recycling and minimizing resource extraction can result in improved air and water quality and help in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions intergenerational equity following effective waste management practices can provide subsequent generations a more robust economy a fairer and more inclusive society and a cleaner environment

Topic challenges in developing countries areas with developing economies often experience exhausted waste collection services and inadequately managed and uncontrolled dump sites the problems are worsening problems with governance complicate the situation waste management in these countries and cities as an ongoing challenge due to weak institutions chronic under-resourcing and rapid urbanization all of these challenges along with the lack of understanding of different factors that contribute to the hierarchy of waste management affect the treatment of waste topic Technologies traditionally the waste management industry has been a late adopter of new technologies such as RFID radio frequency identification tags GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry topic scientific journals related scientific journals in this area include environmental and resource economics environmental monitoring and assessment

Journal of environmental assessment policy and management Journal of environmental economics and management topic see also topic references topic external links gasoline from vinegar MIT technology review

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